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Process safety:

Safety and availability of process plants is influenced by many factors, most of them are also covered in the field of process safety related incidents, i.e. incident consequences caused by the substances handled in a process, are also highly affecting productivity by causing huge losses due to equipment damage and unit shutdowns, an adequate process safety system is essential not only for the protection of humans and the environment but for economic reasons, too.

Hazard Identification
Several systematic hazard identification methodologies, like HAZOP, SWIFT (Structured What-If Analysis) and Human Factor Analysis are used according to the relevant field of application.

Hazard and Operability
The primary purpose of a Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study is to identify all deviations from the way the design is expected to work, their causes, and all the hazards and operability problems associated with these deviations and make recommendations to improve its safety and operability. Usually, a facilitated multidisciplinary team uses a systematic approach to identify hazards and operability problems.
TÜV AUSTRIA performs HAZOP studies according to international practise, the HAZOP leaders are senior experts with experience of numerous HAZOPs performed in oil&gas, petrochemical, chemical and steel production industry. The studies are conducted by usage of the state of the art Software PHA Pro ®.

This type of analysis is used for non-continuous modes of operation of units of for considering more general hazard aspects as required in the early design phase.
Human Factor Analysis
Used for hazard identification in processes which consist of a lot of manual tasks. By this, critical procedural steps which might lead to severe consequences in case of an error are identified.

Risk Analysis
Layer of protection analysis (LOPA) is a semi-quantitative tool for analyzing and assessing risks of a process plant. It uses an order of magnitude technique to evaluate the adequacy of existing or proposed layers of protection against known hazards. LOPA typically builds on the information developed during a qualitative hazard evaluation and can be used to meet the risk assessment requirements of IEC 61508 and 61511.
Fire and Explosion Effects Assessment / Dispersion modeling
These render vital information on the effects of industrial accidents on-site and off-site. By this safety critical elements survivability, Domino effects and emergency planning considerations can be evaluated. The results can also be used for QRA and OBRA as discussed below. TÜV AUSTRIA performs the fire and explosion effects assessment and dispersion modeling by usage of the software Effects®.

Ocupied Building Risk Assessment (OBRA)
OBRA is used for assessing the effects of fires / explosions as well as smoke / toxic gas ingress on buildings, and by this, the effects on the corresponding population. Building resistances will be used to determine the structural building damage.

Full quantitative risk assessment (QRA)
QRA is a technique to analyze the total risks of accidents involving dangerous substances, resulting in lethal victims, injuries and/or material damage to surroundings. In order to be able to compare risks, quantitative values are given for Individual Risks and Societal Risk. Individual risk is usually presented as “ISO Risk Contours” which are lines on a topographic map which represents points with equal risk (frequency) of mortality. To calculate Societal Risks, population distribution information is required. TÜV AUSTRIA performs the QRA usually according to the methodology given in the Dutch “Purple Book”, which is used also in many European and other countries.

Functional Safety
Safety integrated function is common in the process industries to protect against dangerous exceeding of process parameters. EN 61508 and 61511 define “Safety Integrity Levels” (SIL) as well as requirements for the whole lifecycle of such functions. TÜV AUSTRIA performs all tasks of the lifecycle which can be covered from an independent 3rd party organization, like verification, validation, support in development of bypass strategies, and functional testing.

Risk Based Inspection
RBI is a key tool to evaluate current inspection plans and to determine priorities for inspections of pressure equipment. By this, critical contributors to risk are identified, economic optimum levels inspection with respect to the risks are defined and future plans for decision making are established.

TÜV AUSTRIA performs the essential steps of a Risk Based Inspection analysis, like assessment of the probability of failure (PoF) and the consequence of Failure (CoF) according to the principles of the European RIMAP methothodolgy, as described in the CEN Workshop Agreement CWA 15740. Within this approach, the effort of the analysis is rather on lifetime assessment and establishing inspections plans for equipment than on calculating effects of leakages in very much detail. The analysis is performed and documented in the corresponding software tool established by TÜV AUSTRIA.

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